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It also contains a DVD with full version of the background papers, keynote addresses, and various papers presented at the Forum. Working together with various international institutions the Working Group on Drainage WG-Drainage of International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage ICID has provided a number of publications dedicated exclusively to various facets of agriculture drainage. The participating countries were: The study was carried out in two steps. This status report is based on the outcomes of these deliberations and case studies.
Towards Sustainable Development of Tidal Areas: Tidal areas exist all over the world along the coasts. Generally they are sensitive areas with a high ecological value. Due to their physical conditions and environmental value they are normally left as such and spared from development.
However, due to strategic reasons, in many locations there are often tremendous pressures to develop these areas for various types of land uses. The publication presents the principles and guidelines for engineers and the decision makers for sustainable development of tidal areas.
The publication is based on experiences from specialists in various densely populated countries, like China, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The publication is based on three principles: Since its establishment, there has been an overwhelming response and over nominations from ICID national committees were received.
So far, 24 awards have been given to the professionals coming from 12 countries across the world. Earlier, a booklet providing primary information about the water saving practices adopted by some of the ICID member countries was published in The document was very well received not only by ICID member countries but by international organizations, as well. This document is a compilation in a different form. Besides bringing out in a generic sense selected experts across the world have contributed to enhance its contents.
The case studies of successful water savings from Australia, Brazil, China, India, Egypt, Korea, Pakistan, South Africa, Spain, Turkmenistan, and USA are highlighted and as obvious, water saving efforts is more conspicuous in countries having significant irrigated agriculture. Development and management of irrigation, drainage and flood control play a key role in poverty eradication and increasing the productivity of agriculture in LDCs.
This book contains various recommendations towards promoting irrigation and drainage in LDCs of Asia. Improvement of on-farm irrigation efficiency is important not only to enhance the overall irrigation efficiency of the irrigation schemes but also to boost the crop water productivity. Worldwide, the use of sprinkler and micro irrigation methods have been steadily increasing in order to cope with declining water withdrawals to irrigation, better use of other farm inputs like - seed, fertilizers and chemicals, energy, etc.
At the same time, these pressurized irrigation technologies should not be considered as a panacea for improved on-farm water management. Experience has shown that if these systems are not designed, operated, and maintained properly, they may not give the expected benefits and even in some situations may adversely affect the crop growth.
It is therefore essential to carry out periodic diagnostic analysis and performance evaluation of the pressurized irrigation systems to ensure that they are operating optimally. Among the pressurized irrigation, micro irrigation technology is expanding by leaps and bounds.
Many new and innovative products are being produced by the researchers and manufacturers. The manual is authored by Dr. Ghinassi has a long and varied field experience in conducting performance evaluation tests of different types of sprinkler and micro irrigation systems. Although, there are many publications on performance evaluation of on-farm irrigation methods, this manual is different due to its own unique approach. It provides a comprehensive information both, theoretical and practical; these inter-alia include appropriate performance indicators, field evaluation techniques and factors affecting irrigation systems performance etc.
Ghinassi has touched upon the practical aspects and provided minute details on various performance indicators and their field testing. This Strategy document was further improved, updated and finalised through eight regional visions, 43 country reports and several deliberations within ICID. All the above TFs completed their assigned tasks by Over the past three decades, micro irrigation as a technology has matured into a reliable water and fertigation management system for crop production.
The usage of micro irrigation is increasing world over, especially in arid and semi-arid regions as an effective water conservation and demand management measure to cope up with the increasing scarcity of water in agriculture.
The micro irrigated area grew gradually from 1. Today, the micro irrigation is practiced in more than 70 countries covering an area of over 6 million ha showing the doubling of area just in the last six years. The book contains 14 chapters and provides information on the latest developments in micro irrigation system components, practical aspects of water treatment and filtration, fertigation, monitoring and control, and maintenance of micro irrigation systems. Israel has been a pioneering country in the field of pressurized irrigation technology, especially in micro irrigation.
Moshe Sne, the author of the book has a vast experience in the planning, designing and implementation of micro irrigation systems. The book has a sizeable illustrations and tables. The step by step procedure of planning and design of micro irrigation system for variety of crops are given in a scientific manner in a lucid language with some practical examples. This guideline will be a valuable reference book for irrigation engineers, practising professionals in water management, students, farmers, manufacturers and all those dealing with the subject of micro irrigation.
Rainfall does not always fall uniformly, even in humid regions. Rainfall events have large seasonal or irregular fluctuations. Upland irrigation, therefore is necessary in humid regions in order to keep the soil moisture at desired level. Intensive cultivation is essential in order to harvest high quality fruits and vegetables, and careful water application via irrigation is very essential.
The publication deals with all aspects of micro irrigation system like planning and design taking into consideration the special characteristics viz. For demonstrative purposes, the author has provided a detailed mathematical analysis of planning and designing of a farm pond. Flood Management or flood risk management concerns all actions related to the control of floods, the mitigation of flooding and, after such flood control and mitigative measures have been implemented, the management of the residual risk of flooding.
A logical method of assessing such damage for use in the selection of a flood protection system is presented in this Manual. An effort has been made to formulate recommendations for the application of a certain return period as a function of the considerations mentioned in the Manual. Advantages and disadvantages of a standard level of protection have been mentioned.
Reasons for adopting a certain level of protection for a certain area such as loss of human life , has been discussed including related political, economic or psychological considerations. Further, the use of hydrodynamic mathematical models of the deterministic type for carrying out flood management has been described.
The purpose and effectiveness of certain mathematical models for understanding the flooding phenomenon for studying and testing flood control measures and, finally, for calculating various flood parameters has also been described. ICID members and Booksellers: Conservation of water resources is becoming increasingly important as the demand for water from agriculture, domestic and industrial sectors and ecosystem rises rapidly and the new sources of supply become scarcer.
Drainage problems are often amplified as a result of excessive seepage losses from canals. In this context, adoption of innovative construction techniques in irrigation and drainage projects with the use of geosynthetics is an important step forward. The geosynthetics industry, during the last three decades has developed a wide range of materials that are useful in the development of irrigation and drainage projects, especially for controlling seepage and erosion.
Geosynthetics now provide unprecedented possibilities for design and construction of low embankment dams, cost effective solutions for slope and channel protection, and long term solution for control of seepage losses from reservoirs and channels. It is now possible to find a geosynthetic material that meets project specifications and has durability consistent with the project design life, even under extreme climatic conditions. The book provides information on the wide range of geosynthetics and their potential application to irrigation and drainage projects.
The controversial issue of lining or not irrrigation canals and the design and construction issues of lining with conventional hard materials or with the use of geosynthetics is discussed. Special attention is given to the techniques to line existing canals with minimum interruption of irrigation service with the use of geocells, concrete-filled mattresses or field fabricated geocomposite for example. Finally the book discusses the selection of geomembranes based on the technical service requirements-and not purely on cost considerations-and discusses the two main procurement methods based either on material-specific or performance-specifications.
The book contains more than 20 coloured photographs of actual installations and use of geosynthetics in various irrigation projects world over. The book provides a list of international organizations involved in the development of geosynthetics and providing services to the industry and to their clients, model of performance-type technical specifications for the supply and installation of geomembranes, and technical specifications for the supply of laboratory equipments.
This book is of great interest to various agencies dealing with execution of irrigation and drainage projects, irrigation and drainage engineers, planners, and financing and research institutions. It is hoped that it will stimulate consideration of the use of geosynthetics in upgrading existing irrigation systems in need of rehabilitation and modernization.
ICID has brought out this book to keep the professionals abreast with the advances in the rapidly changing and expanding geosynthetics technology. Plusquellec, author of the book, has compiled available information on different types of geosynthetic materials and provided practical tips for selection, installation, procurement and quality control to facilitate safe design and construction of structures incorporating geosynthetics. Plusquellec has extensive field experience in design, management and performance assessment of irrigation projects world over during his tenure with the World Bank.
He has direct experience in the use of geosynthetics in large irrigation projects in Middle East, South Asia and China. Michael Snell, UK and Mr. Fahlbusch, Bart Schultz and C. This publication provides a historical picture of the past and present of the Indus Basin covering an area of 1. Agriculture, like in other contemporary civilizations, was the backbone of Indus too. Megasthenes and Fa-Hsien, as also the modern archaeologists and historians have all eloquently described the magnificence of this basin, its agriculture and artistic skill of its people as evidenced from excavated pottery, stone work, sculpture and seals.
Kalibangan excavations in present western Rajasthan BC shows a ploughed field, the first site of this nature in the world. It shows grid of furrows, placed about 30 cm apart running east-west and other spaced about cm apart running north-south, a pattern remarkably similar to the one practiced even now. The great bath at Mohenjo-Daro deployed an ingenious hydraulic system.
The level of urbanization was seemingly far more advanced than in other contemporary civilizations. Cities were divided into the citadel and residential areas and the streets ran straight, following a grid iron pattern. The houses were built of burnt bricks with remarkable drainage system using ceramic drain pipes, covered sewers and vaulted sub-terranean conduits. Like all the tropical monsoon basins, the Indus Basin has been experiencing floods of varying magnitudes from time immemorial.
The archaeological explorations in search of Indus Valley Civilization have revealed the existence of embankments on river banks to protect cities. The fields were irrigated by transporting water through inundation canals making use of rivers in spate and by sailaba flooding irrigation. The dug wells were also put to use to draw water for irrigation.
The existence of Karezs underground water channels and lifting devices called charas, shaduf or dhenkli, rati and Persian wheels indicates extensive use of groundwater for irrigation.
The early stone dams, called Gabar Bunds, and terrace dams, called Kach Bunds, have been found in the arid regions of Sindh and Balochistan, delta area and south-western part of Sindh. The Gabar Bunds captured and stored annual runoff from surrounding mountains to be made available to tracts under cultivation. By about , the old settled regions of the Punjab comprising lands carrying proprietory rights had been provided with irrigation facilities either by constructing new canals or by remodelling and restoration of old canals.
Warabandi rotational system of water distribution amongst users is the hallmark of Indus basin that has worked well for centuries. At places, the overuse of irrigation water has given rise to the twin problems of waterlogging and salinity affecting productivity. Efforts are on to tackle the menace. The basin is home to an internationally acclaimed water sharing accord, called the Indus Water Treaty, signed between India and Pakistan in that has survived the test of time.
The large infrastructure development in the basin comprising dams, barrages, canals, minors etc. Constantly improving command area development and management, besides on-farm developmental works, have imparted better productivity in the region. River Danube, also called variously as Donau, Dunaj, Duna, Dunav or Dunarea in different countries, originates in the high Schwarzwald massif and flows for 2, km across Europe to meet the Black Sea and traverses on its way through glacier-covered mountains, karst formations, forests, highlands and uplands, plateaus with deeply carved river valleys and plains as an international waterway connecting nine previously seven countries.